They then produce the instructions using a modern content management system (CMS). “The CMS allows us to create new text or graphics modules or reuse those from other engines or systems,” explained Bockewitz. The CMS also checks wording. This ensures uniformity and clarity even where several authors have been working on the same document. Deliberate use of specific wording is key to avoiding misunderstandings. In the series systems business, standard operating instructions are provided, since the scope of supply does not really change from one order to the next. In the project systems business, however, technical documentation is custom-written by the authors, e.g. for a PowerPack (a rail engine plus accessories for use in railcars). “Each order is different, and we have to take account of that,” said Bockewitz. Thanks to the modular approach taken by the CMS, operating instructions for a rail PowerPack take only around a week to produce. Instructions for a new product, where the technical author is involved right from the design stage, can last several weeks.